Industry News

Golf courses reduce water usage by 29 percent according to national survey

Survey conducted by Golf Course Superintendents Association of America also shows increased implementation of water best management practices at U.S. courses

Lawrence, Kan. (July 26, 2022) – Golf courses in the U.S. used 29 percent less water in 2020, compared with usage in 2005, according to recently released survey data. The 2021 survey was conducted by the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA) and funded by the GCSAA Foundation as part of its Golf Course Environmental Profile program, which began in 2005.

The report found that U.S. golf facilities applied approximately 1.68 million acre-feet of water in 2020, a 29% reduction since 2005. Two-thirds of the reduction was likely a result of operational golf facilities applying water more efficiently.

The survey results from nearly 1,600 golf course superintendents were collected and independently analyzed by scientists Travis Shaddox, Ph.D., Bluegrass Art and Science LLC., and J. Bryan Unruh, Ph.D. University of Florida, and the National Golf Foundation (NGF), which published the findings for peer review before making the information public.

“Data from the 2021 water use benchmarking survey show that golf course superintendents continue to reduce water use at their facilities. The survey results indicate a 9% reduction in applied water since 2013, totaling a 29% reduction since the inaugural survey was conducted,” Unruh said. “Similarly, the median acre-feet per acre, a measure of water use efficiency, has improved by 23% since 2005.”

The most common sources of water, according to the report, were wells (32%) and lakes and ponds (23%). Less water was applied in 2020 from each water source than in 2005 except for recycled water, which accounted for 21% of water applied.

Golf course superintendents have also increased the use of best management practices (BMPs) that can lead to reductions in water usage. BMPs such as keeping turf drier, pruning tree roots, changing to a more drought-tolerant turfgrass, mulching landscape beds and increasing no-mow acres were significantly associated with reductions in applied water.

The study also provides data on average water use in the seven different agronomic regions of the country. Decreased water use was seen in every region. The greatest water use applied per acre happened in the Southwest and Upper West/Mountain – two regions that have high average temperatures and low average rainfall.

“Golf course superintendents are responsible stewards of water resources, and the latest national survey results demonstrate that,” said Rhett Evans, CEO of GCSAA. “Superintendents are committed  to efficient water management and have implemented evidence-based best management practices that result in reduced water use. All golf facilities should maintain a BMP manual and strive for continuous improvement as water management plans are an important aspect of BMPs and overall environmental sustainability.”

As part of the third series of its Golf Course Environmental Profile program, GCSAA will publish two additional national surveys related to golf course management over the next two years.

To learn more and to see the complete survey report, read the upcoming August issue of GCSAA’s GCM magazine at


The Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA) is a leading golf organization in the United States. Its focus is on golf course management, and since 1926 GCSAA has been the top professional association for the men and women who manage golf courses in the U.S. and worldwide. From its headquarters in Lawrence, Kan., the association provides education, information and representation to more than 19,000 members in more than 78 countries. The association’s mission is to serve its members, advance their profession and improve communities through enjoyment, growth and vitality of the game of golf. Visit GCSAA at or find us on Facebook or Twitter. Visit our industry-leading magazine at

The GCSAA Foundation is the philanthropic organization of the GCSAA. Its mission is to secure funding and support to strengthen advocacy, education, and research that advances the work of golf course management professionals. Visit the Foundation at